Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Stream Cipher WG-16 with Composite Field Arithmetic


The Welch-Gong (WG) stream cipher family was designed based on the WG transformation and is able to generate keystreams with mathematically proven randomness properties such as long period, balance, ideal tuple distribution, ideal two-level autocorrelation and high and exact linear complexity. In this paper, we present a compact hardware architecture and its pipelined implementation of the stream cipher WG-16, an efficient instance of the WG stream cipher family, using composite field arithmetic and a newly proposed property of the trace function in tower field representation. Instead of using the original binary field $F_{2^{16}}$, we demonstrate that its isomorphic tower field $F_{(((2^2)^2)^2)^2}$ can lead to a more efficient hardware implementation. Efficient conversion matrices connecting the binary field $F_{2^{16}}$ and the tower field $F_{(((2^2)^2)^2)^2}$ are also derived. Our implementation results show that the pipelined WG-16 hardware core can achieve the throughput of $124$ MHz at the cost of $478$ slices in an FPGA and $552$ MHz at the cost of $12,031$ GEs in a $65$ nm ASIC, respectively.

The 2013 ACM Workshop on Trustworthy Embedded Devices (TrustED 2013)
Xinxin Fan
Xinxin Fan
Head of Cryptography

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